Corruption of Science

Vikings Were NEVER the Pure-Bred Master Race White Supremacists Like to Portray
The word "Viking" entered the Modern English language in 1807, at a time of growing nationalism and empire building. In the decades that followed, enduring stereotypes about Vikings developed, such as wearing horned helmets and belonging to a society where only men wielded high status.
During the 19th century, Vikings were praised as prototypes and ancestor figures for European colonists. The idea took root of a Germanic master race, fed by crude scientific theories and nurtured by Nazi ideology in the 1930s. These theories have long been debunked, although the notion of the ethnic purity of the Vikings still seems to have popular appeal – and it is embraced by white supremacists.
In contemporary culture, the word Viking is generally synonymous with Scandinavians from the ninth to the 11th centuries. We often hear terms such as "Viking blood," "Viking DNA" and "Viking ancestors" – but the medieval term meant something quite different to modern usage. Instead it defined an activity: "Going a-Viking". Akin to the modern word pirate, Vikings were defined by their mobility and this did not include the bulk of the Scandinavian population who stayed at home.
While the modern word Viking came to light in an era of nationalism, the ninth century – when Viking raids ranged beyond the boundaries of modern Europe – was different. The modern nation states of Denmark, Norway and Sweden were still undergoing formation. Local and familial identity were more prized than national allegiances. The terms used to describe Vikings by contemporaries: "wicing," "rus," "magi," "gennti," "pagani," "pirati" tend to be non-ethnic. When a term akin to Danes, "danar" is first used in English, it appears as a political label describing a mix of peoples under Viking control.
The mobility of Vikings led to a fusion of cultures within their ranks and their trade routes would extend from Canada to Afghanistan. A striking feature of the early Vikings' success was their ability to embrace and adapt from a wide range of cultures, whether that be the Christian Irish in the west or the Muslims of the Abbasid Caliphate in the east.

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Developments in archaeology in recent decades have highlighted how people and goods could move over wider distances in the early Middle Ages than we have tended to think. In the eighth century, (before the main period of Viking raiding began), the Baltic was a place where Scandinavians, Frisians, Slavs and Arabic merchants were in frequent contact. It is too simplistic to think of early Viking raids, too, as hit-and-run affairs with ships coming directly from Scandinavia and immediately rushing home again.
Recent archaeological and textual work indicates that Vikings stopped off at numerous places during campaigns (this might be to rest, restock, gather tribute and ransoms, repair equipment and gather intelligence). This allowed more sustained interaction with different peoples. Alliances between Vikings and local peoples are recorded from the 830s and 840s in Britain and Ireland. By the 850s, mixed groups of Gaelic (Gaedhil) and foreign culture (Gaill) were plaguing the Irish countryside.
Written accounts survive from Britain and Ireland condemning or seeking to prevent people from joining the Vikings. And they show Viking war bands were not ethnically exclusive. As with later pirate groups (for example the early modern pirates of the Caribbean), Viking crews would frequently lose members and pick up new recruits as they travelled, combining dissident elements from different backgrounds and cultures.

Kek. Sure, their oars were probably manned by free and captive men from around whichever sea the ship was based in. I "wonder" what they're trying to get at that's so interesting.

Lol, somebody's butthurt. Is there some new DNA study coming out or something?

What is telling once again is the point the story is trying to make. It's not important goyim, racemix now. Let me clear this up a bit.

This is an opinion piece by "the Conversation" this is an (((independent))), (((not-for-profit))), (((news and information service))) sourced from the (((university))) and (((research sector))), delivered straight to the public. Professionally edited by (((journalists))), The Conversation offers (((news))), (((views))) and (((analysis))) on current or relevant issues, as well as the latest (((research))) and (((breakthroughs))). ←– hope that helped.

Who said this OP?

This reminds me of the western propagandist claims that Herrenvolk means master race.

Go back to lefty pol you Jewish supremacist puppet.

He posted a link to the article but I have to admit that I also thought that OP was the one claiming this when I saw the thread in the catalog.


The author is Dr Clare Downham - Institute of Irish Studies - University of Liverpool

Soon blue eyes will be a "myth"



You can't have people from different races in the same unit for the simple reason they can't communicate quickly enough for combat. Today sure anyone knows some english and it might sort of work, but back then it'd be impossible.
But nevermind that. If vikings were niggers, where are the nigger skulls in viking armor? Let me guess: in Africa, but their armor and weapons were stolen by Whites to hide their proud history?

Yeah, that's why they looked like Bethesda generated Americans.
Oh, wait.

They didn't.
I should have known, anti European Christcuckery is afoot.

Honestly, the less white Vikings were, the better. Those people were a stain on our race's history. People only like them because their mythology was cool.

Are you English?

At least nubians actually existed in egypt at the time of their lie. But this is just potato tier retarded
Thanks for the laugh at least.

I'm wondering where that usage is found. There is no reference in the article to back up the claim. As a counterpoint to the article's claim: in Beowulf, the gardena (spear-Danes) are presented as a distinct people with their own land, history, and culture. Since the core of Beowulf is distinctly pagan (large amounts of Christian influence were shoehorned into the poem at a later date), I think it is safe to say that "Danes" were recognized as a distinct people at least as far back as the beginning of the Medieval period.

Chaim, the showers are that way —→

Sounds like some butthurt kikes.


its a strange feeling


This, when I read the headline I was wondering who the fuck ever considered vikings as 'the master race.'

Enslaving whites and selling them to shitskins. Fucking based, right?

We have to start killing these people tbh

Wrong. Many warbands in the pre-Viking era were of people who spoke two, sometimes three languages. Races played a part, obviously, but from other reasons; someone not from your clan would not be trustable, so you would only hire/join forces with them as a last resort.

You mean, people who managed to survive in the harshest of places with hell-freezing temperatures had to sail across periculous seas to raid other more wealthy people to secure they had enough food in their bellies for winter were a stain? Please enlighten me on what you think it is worth of your attention, (((sir))).

The first tribes of Scandinavia were Danes, Geats, Gutes, Saxons, Jutes and Angles.

Saxons arguably were Scandinavian, but they were mostly settled in northern modern Germany. Jutes were called like that because they were fucking huge. Angles were fishermen, with little military tradition but were masters of trade because they ruled over trade routes. Danes were master sailors. Sweons lived in modern Sweden, and were proto-vikings in the strictest of senses. Geats were the precursors of the Goths, and the separation came due to overpopulation of Gotaland. Romans classified those tribes back in the 2nd century. Each of them had distinct cultures and traditions. And this is not to mention the eastern europe tribes, who were the "true" vikings of the time, terrorizing the Baltic Sea in the Geats' trade routes.

Beowulf was written in a later time.

Stop being British.

You're a living, breathing, shitpost.

Yes, I know that Beowulf was written at a later time. You missed the point of my post, which was responding to the article claiming that the original usage of the word "danar" IN ENGLISH did not connote a distinct ethnic group. Since I was responding to a claim about ENGLISH LANGUAGE usage of the word "danar", the Roman classifications are irrelevant to the argument.

Stop being an honourary nigger.

Those grapes were sour anyway, right, kike?

Honestly, Vikings -did- had diversity in their ranks. They had multiple people from origins distinct from Scandinavia at times, because a thrall could become a family member, if he proved himself in combat in their favor. It was not uncommon for thralls to become warriors themselves, especially because vikings didn't actually lived much differently than the farmers that were captured.

The problem here is they want to label "diversity" as something completely different than it actually meant. There were slavic, gothic, sarmatian, finno-ugric and heck even celto-roman vikings. Those were the exception, not the rule. But the common point here is: all of these people are from the geographic region from which it was possible for raids to happen. Volunteers would join them because most of times it was preferrable to join the dreaded vikings than be impaled or have your family taken away to become thralls (again, slavery wasn't much of a downgrade from their common lives).

It is laughable that they want to say there were blacks and muslims in northern Europe, when at that time, northern Africa was mostly white (Roman influence) and the Moors were an irrelevant people in northwestern Africa. It was only much later on, when mohammed the pedo goatfucker decided to rape and pillage caravans in the fucking desert and founded a religion based on war, blood and conquer, that it would invade africa first, then spain, but never leave that region.

The English name "danish" comes from Old English Denisc; Scandinavia from Old English Scedenig; so a "Denisc" would literally mean "from Scedenig". Old English was heavily influenced by Roman sources.

Danes are distinct ethnically from Jutes, Saxons and Sweons, mostly because of geographical cultures. They were the poorest tribals, because of Curonian raids. If you know history 101 you know that a people that gets messed around a lot usually grows a skin and gets savage. This is why they became ruthless warriors who then became the main source of Vikings after a guy named Harald Bluetooth converted to christianity and decided to claim himself king of the Danes, which would wipe out Jutes, Angles and Saxons from Scandia (by that time, those three were already confortable in their seats in Britain, their lands in Scandia becoming simple annexations from their main operations on more fertile lands).

I bet you think 'snownigger' is just a meme.

Nigger you that butthurt.
Sorry u wasn't kangz.
Yeah Yeah we know about viking horns… but when you say the days of the week or imagine Santa Claus or fuck even a father good, know you call upon my fucking history. Even words like "thing" are of our origin. You on the other hand have NOTHING.
sorry you suck.
Now truly I DO respect the east Asians and the old Indian scholars (pre muslim rape).
But yeah come on we all don't get trophies in the human achievement Olympics.
Muslims BTFO
Africans BTFO
Abbos. BTFO
Various natives: some are cool but not quite in a high civilization way.

"Viking" was literally any farmer that had to take arms to supplement their diet and supplies from winter, since it is impossible to grow anything in Scandinavia and have enough food for the long winter there. You HAD to take a spear and an old shield to raid, or you and your family would starve out in the snow. It's obvious those people were not going to be better armed or trained than professional soldiers. Their main quality was the surprise tactics of raiding coastal villages and small towns, looting everything and going back to sea before a mainland army would reach them.

It's obvious those folks will lose to mainland battles. Viking kings, with very few exceptions, had no idea how to battle in land outside terror and blitz tactics. Now please educate us on how snowniggers actually managed to remove a seated power in Britain and Europe multiple times, without prior knowledge and tradition in that.

Oh no, you can't, because fucking vikings are not a civilization, but a bunch of raiders that never built anything, and were praised simply for their ferocity and ruggedness, and compared to fucking niggers and mohammed the pedo goatfucker followers at least had the decency to live in peace with their people, and not destroy anything that wasn't pagan (please quote me Roman propaganda on how they are brutal bloodlust maniacs).

You seem to be more interested in displaying how much information you retained from history class than you are in understanding the nature of the argument raised in the article and why my response to it was constructed as it was. Your responses to me have been tedious tangential ramblings that entirely miss the point and fail to actually respond in a relevant manner to anything I said.


Yeah, Scandinavians are niggers Shlomo. That is why they have enormously high IQs and lived in degeneracy-free societies. Bet that is also why the "mighty" Roman Empire, with their arab Moloch-priest Emperors like Elogabalus, didn't manage to conquer them - because they were a bunch of unruly niggers.

All Europeans did the same, heavily-christian Venice was a chief slave port of Slavs to the middle east. Greek merchants sold thousands of slaves from the Balkans to their arab enemies who attacked them YEARLY. Not to mention christian nobility and clergy enslaving european the landless european peasants, taxing and starving them to death while living lives of luxury forcefully drafting these europeans into their armies to fight petty wars against their brothers.

I know all of this already.

This shit is getting real fucking old.



Also, Old English "dena" (Danes) comes from Old High German "tanar" (sand bank), which describes the Danish homeland. Your etymology in incorrect.

so.. WE WUZ?..

dammit, I meant to say "comes from the same source as OHG tanar". Fixed.

You're one pissed off Anglo. Vikings break countless narratives alone by having verifiable proof discovering the Americas long before Columbus.

The whole article doesn't make any sense with (((their))) own definition of ethnicity:

They're race baiting even though according to (((them))) ancestry is only one of many things that can 'define' an ethnicity.

Viking were always the niggers of Europe and i have no idea why anyone would felate that human garbage as anything other than enemy of European people.

Sand niggers didn't need vikings to sell them slaves, idiot. You are excusing the barbarity Religion of Cuck™ic slavery (complete with castration) with viking slavery. Get fucked, kike.

Viking age Norway had a population of less than 200.000. Frankia had a population of 14 million. Vikings colonized France (Normandy).

But out of the thousands of Viking Age battles, this asshurt kike picks up a few battles on wikipedia, proving his absolute autism.

Vikings also had superior ships and weapons, founded modern Russia and the descendents of the Normans still own 97% of land in Britain, having established kingdoms as far as Sicily, defeating the Byzantine Empire at it's height, invading Greece and Africa and expelling the muslims from the Island. It's like China getting sucessfully invaded by Laos, if Laos was covered in snow during 6 months each year…

There is literally no justification for anti-Viking kikery, the Third Reich took extreme proud on their against-all-odds bravery and did extensive propaganda. Stop with the de-railing

Nice try, schlomo.

Get a load of these brain dead retards immediately going MUH KIKE, whenever someone disrupts their preprogrammed line of discourse.


More ""whiteness" is a myth invented in the 18th century goyim"" narrative. You have no history! Queen victoria had an afair with Abdul, and the real vikings were multicultural nigger jews!

Anything coming out of a (((university)))
Absolutely can be safely written off as jewish trickery. They have used university's to poison the minds of the youth, since we let jews in. Even STEM fields which should be bullshit free are at least 1/3rd bullshit.

Whenever my jewish bio professor has to mention a white male scientist that contributed to the subject, he has to remind the whole class that said white male scientist was sexist, racist, and prob stole the idea from a woman. He also constantly says race doesn't exist and all race is, is a pigment gene.

Sigh. DOTR soon.

Get a load of this triggered kike so butthurt that his snownigger narrative collapses the moment people bring unquestionable facts to the table.


"OY VEY, HOW DARE YOU GOY", the post.

Kill yourself, you waste of food and air.
What the fuck is a mentally deficient retard like you even doing on this website?

He's probably a Christcuck. Do not engage further.

Don't you have a hannukah or a bar mitzvah to attend, schlomo? Gtfo, your kind is not welcome here. Go suck a toddler's sliced dick or something.

BTW, it's interesting that you bring up mental deficiencies. Tick here all mental diseases you're qualified to. Come back to us after you've done it.

OP, your heart's in the right place and you're trying to do good work, so I'll throw you a bone: next time you want to post an article like this, clarify that the text is a quotation of text from the article:
Also, create an archive like this before posting:
This board is watched like a hawk by kikes and kike puppets (and heavily shilled; notice all the posts trying to derail the thread), and "problematic" sites tend to get taken down or edited.

You are an embarrassment to this board and deserve to be permabanned.

Can't be more stereotypical.

Kill yourself.

Do not forget, viking primitive metallurgy was a few hundred years ahead of it's time.

This narrative is old as fuck, people pushing it think they will dissolve entire movements and ideology by merely undoing the concept of pure, master race. The only possible outcome is making a global gamergate. Imagine if current NatSoc ideology got rid of the purist part of the ideology and accepted every race, every faggot that wants to see the establishment burn, in.

That is why I doubt most of the time the great jewish conspiracy. If jews were so good at being evil, they would not make so much mistakes the past decade. It is just tribalism between marxist jews and zionists, I guess.


Thanks for the shekels, goy.(Way to be an obvious kike, idiot.)

but not for the reasons xyr thinks

Were another nomadic group like the Misfits, Nords, and the Goths of the time.

Incest destroys. Look at Tutankhamun. All humanoids are mixed in some way. That's how Caucasoids have such color diversity in hair and eyes.

Archaeology cannot prove or disprove any original man due to decay over time.

There is no "White". This is a trick to strip you of your ancestral heritage and cultural history. Do not fall for it.

"The Untold True Story" This is a form of portrayal. It translates to "An Untrue Story".
Iron Age DNA samples can be mapped to DNA samples of modern Europeans, Americans, and Australians. Most Egyptian Pharaohs have the same DNA characteristics and have been proven to be closer to modern day Caucasians than modern day Egyptians.

Herein lies the kicker.
All "Jews" have the same or similar DNA as modern day and Iron Age Caucasians. This is because
and any attempts to meme otherwise are lies to muddy the genetic cultures of ancient Northlanders.

This post delete, please.
Sorry for double post.


Torposter, Jews are a group of Semitic races (Muslims are also Semitic) that use their religion as a shield so they can do a two for one. Hate them for their religion? You're antisemitic because you hate their race, hate them for their race? You're antisemitic because you hate their religion.

Jews are Jews, no two ways about it.

Yeah, hardly anything similar even in pre-christian Rome. They also built huge stone burial-mounds packed with similar items and riches - they didn't do a lot more building of huge structures because they didn't have cities or even huge populations - they lived in harmony with nature at allodial properties, attained by right of blood. They also didn't have "temples", because that was not how they worshipped the gods. Read Tacitus' "Germania", a quick read and great source on the subject (kikes say it's an anti-semitic book, oy veyy). There is also not a lot of purpose to build such huge structures in Scandinavia, and they couldn't afford to, because life there was hard enough even to feed themselves, so they prioritized honoring their ancestors, caring for their blood, upholding the laws of the gods.

Explain yourself, torfag.


Not only and not all. Iron Age DNA samples list meme many "jew" DNA strains, such as Ethiopian and Italian jews. Their DNA did not match the semite DNA samples of the time or today.

My point is that these faggots are trying to solidify themselves genetically when they are only a state of mind.

We wuz Vikangz n shiiieet.

You post with Tor you immediately stand out, period.

Jews are heavy race mixers and all of them are mongrels. Most of the clans but two are extinct, and one of them is actually just a "revival" of a new batch of mongrels that descend from some 200 individuals a couple centuries ago. They're not even true practitioners of their own religion, not being a Matriarchy, and are all mongrels who are obsessed with their Jew DNA.

Obvious bait is obvious.

Tor is more than .onion sites.
Just a few weeks ago mods "fixed" the vulnerability I posted over Tor with for years.

Yet only Tor exits are blocked.

But I get your point.

WTF I hate Rome now.

Yankees Were NEVER the Pure-Bred Master Race White Supremacists Like to Portray
The word "Yankee" entered the Modern English language in the mid-18th century, at a time of growing nationalism and empire building. In the decades that followed, enduring stereotypes about Yankee developed, such as wearing feathers in their caps and belonging to a society where only men wielded high status.
During the 19th century, Yankees were praised as prototypes and ancestor figures for American colonists. The idea took root of an English master race, fed by crude scientific theories and nurtured by Victorian ideology in the 19th century. These theories have long been debunked, although the notion of the ethnic purity of the Yankees still seems to have popular appeal – and it is embraced by white supremacists.
In contemporary culture, the word Yankee is generally synonymous with Americans from the 16th to the 18th centuries. We often hear terms such as "Yankee blood," "Yankee DNA" and "Yankee ancestors" – but the medieval term meant something quite different to modern usage. Instead it defined an activity: "Going a-Yankee". Akin to the modern word pirate, Yankees were defined by their mobility and this did not include the bulk of the English population who stayed at home.

As no one has properly clarified it yet, let me. 'Viking' is a verb. To go 'viking' meant to go pillaging, raiding, looting - generally across the seas. The people we classically think of as vikings are Danes because the English had several wars with them, and Danish raiders liked England because of its proximity and fertile lands, and no doubt also because of the numerous tribes that had moved to England were known for their metal-working and trade.

… With that said, prior to this the Saxons actually went 'vikings' as well. The Irish went viking, and many others went viking. The vast, vast majority of these WERE ethnically homogenous. You wouldn't usually pick up some guy from a tribe a long way away to go raiding with you. When the Saxons first went to Britain however (this time to aid the Romano-Britons from the Picts) they did have the local tribes accompany them - Jutes, Angles, etc. In general a viking contingent would be a single tribe.

The last 'viking king' (a man with a fascinating history, and a viking in the sense that he raided many a place - again particularly England) was Harald Hadrada. Harald Hadrada was Danish prince who had his Kingship initially stolen from him, and he went from there to serve in the Roman (some would say Byzantine) Varangian Guard. The Varangian Guard was historically made up of all sorts of people, but mainly from the Scandinavian countries, and after the conquest of England by the Normans also a large number of Anglo-Saxons. There were Welsh, Russians, Greeks and others in the Varangian guard. I would not be surprised AT ALL if their idea of an ethnically diverse 'viking force' came from Harald Hadrada, who rose to become captain of the Varangian Guard and, when he left, took many of the men with him who had become directly loyal to him. He would retake his rightful Kingship in Denmark, and would then be invited to England by Tostig (Harold Godwinson's brother). Harald Hadrada and Tostig would be killed by the Anglo-Saxon army led by Harold Godwinson in the battle of Stamford Bridge, 1066. It would not surprise me one bit if it was these ex-Varangian guard followers of Hadrada who died in England which have given rise to the idea of 'multi-ethnic vikings'.

Nederlanders kan julle Afrikaans verstaan? Die taal is te moeilik en sal die man reg bewys as Germaanse mense se taal nie eenders is nie.

Duitsers is wahnsinnig! Mann verstehen (German has many words with fucked up spelling but sounds the same as in Afrikaans and has the same meaning too, I am sure this happens to Dutch bros too but maybe to a lesser extent since Afrikaans is Mostly Old-Dutch with the second primary language of influence being German, some estimates as high as 20%)

i suppose nothing should be posted that you claim to think you know

Are they seriously basing "vikings werent white" around the idea of "Viking was a profession not an ethnicity"?

every dumbfuck in germanic research knows this you fucking dumb idiot thats why theyre called Nordic and Germanic culture not viking culture

holy shit my sides
what the hell even is this?

We waz Vikangs and shieet

Nah fuck you they're ok

Who gives a fuck. That was so long ago if one Scandinavians fucked one nigger the amount of nigger in the remaining lineage (barring further entrance of non-white genetics) would be so low as to be statistically irrelevant.

Let's just focus on not fucking niggers today, mkay?

Immediately stopped reading, I know kike-speak when I see it..

and roKANGZ wuz black cuz dey had provinces in africa n shiiet they only managed to create biggest empire in da hood because they used the power of multi-ethnic multiculturalism and the strong black seed much like hannibal of the ebony shores who wuz black and used his superior sense of animal-empathy that we'ze be so known for

Leave the Anglos out of this

Goed punt.

Why are they doing this as the DNA science is out?

Not meaning to shill e-celebs here, but this is an interesting watch. A young Danish scientist (around the average age of the 8ch poster I'd take it) discusses the attempt to censor genetic research in academia that contraindicates PC orthodoxy

I will post this, not to generate infighting between whites, but to make you think what qualities are better for the future, and which ones are preferable to foster
in short, the mediterranean man is mostly responsible for civilization, anything beside is collateral migration or conquest.

The Mediterranean man is also dead you nitwit, the Aryan genes have mostly been eliminated. Look at this bust and tell me you honestly think you descend from him. Fucking northern europeans are probably closer related to him than you you fucking moorish rape baby

While I know little of those cucks' conquests in India, any old indian scholar worth a damn was one of the then few and now nearly non-existent men of aryan/indo-european stock that first built those kingdoms. So there's no reason to place them in the same category as a non-white even if those non-whites are Japanese. chinks and gooks don't count as they're the sub-human jews of Asia

nah you want infighting shill.

Why can't kikes and leftycunts always have to stick their fucking noses

no. I'm more interested in rediscovering what made aryans great, and with that knowledge build new societies for a better future.
Possibly mediterraneans are closer to the mythical aryan man. Should read more into it.

There is still hope. We should gather the few aryans left and sequence them. We are in the genomics era. There is so much we can do today.

My point is: why do leftycunts and kikes have to stick their filthy noses into every single discussion here?

I'll just fuck off then.

BS. Actually modern Greeks are slightly more "aryanized" than 17th century BC Mycenaean Greeks.

whatever you wanna believe sodomite , how come every greek and italian ive met looked like a mixed race mongrel then huh?
care to post a selfie? id like to judge your "Aryanness". im guessing you look somewhere between IM's Alexander and a mulatto like Obama. Considering every time that some shill posts

half the time is some half spic mutt who wants to be cortez. whats your skin color?

Holla Forums BTFO. How will we ever recover?


Why are they doing this as the DNA science is out?

Not meaning to shill e-celebs here, but this is an interesting watch. A young Danish scientist (around the average age of the 8ch poster I'd take it) discusses the attempt to censor genetic research in academia that contraindicates PC orthodoxy

There was a huge sea-based trading empire spanning from Finland to Britain to Iberia. The idea that non-Mediterranean whites were sitting on their butts and failing to achieve anything is madness. The sad part is we only have a very limited understanding of their achievements due to the fact that they refused to write stuff down. That said, having a continent spanning trade Empire, a system of laws - as evidenced by Tacitus- , and at least one "university" - for the druids in Anglesey - is fairly impressive. For all we know it was even greater than that. Clearly inferior to the Roman war machine, although this doesn't necessarily mean their culture or intellect was any lower - in fact we know that Romans coveted Gallic slaves because of the skill in metal-working. Roman success in battle was really only because of their formation fighting as well, and even then they suffered a fair amount of defeats - they were simply able to replenish quicker than other nations because they had a large base to tax and draft from, whereas the more individualistic Northern European tribes tended to fight alone and not ask for money or aid from other tribes.

Most historians consider the viking age as the period between 793 and 1066 AD, even though sea raids by pagan germanic tribes living by the north sea have been recorded as common events since the 3rd century and spain was invaded by the moors in the 7th century so muslims did exist back then. though as i said raids by seafaring germanic pagans were a regular occurrence in the north sea area, pic related is a sculpture from a viking ship found in a river in the netherlands, it was probably made between 400 and 615 AD, possibly even earlier.

bump for attention

Minoans and Mycenaens were pre-Hellenic peoples that became decadent and then wallowed in their necropolises. Later they were conquered by northerners (probably Scythians or other some Aryan steppes peoples) that founded Attic/Hellenic art and literature that has been passed down to us to this day: Hesiod, Homer, Euripides, Plato, Aristotle, etc. The ancient Spartans even prided themselves in recognizing that they were a foreign people subjugating the natives of the land (helots). The pre-Aryan peoples were far more prone to Great Mother goddesses who demanded their due of blood, among other bodily fluids. One can recognize vestiges of this cult in the Anatolian Kybele.