Clearly there is a relationship between the two religions. Jesus was a Judean, born into the Judean religion of the time. That doesn't mean that Christian and Jewish values are essentially the same. We need to look at the how these religions evolved:
1.) In Christianity, the messiah brought a new covenant with God that superseded the covenant of Moses.
2.) The Judaism of Jesus had not reached it's it's final destination. Much of the Talmud was written after his time.
In light of this, it makes more sense to describe the two religions as having derived from a common ancestor, let's call it "Classical Judaism", rather than saying Christianity is derived from the modern religion of Judaism. So the question is, in what significant way did the two religions diverge? Are their fundamental values the same, making "Judeo-Christian values" a valid concept, or did they change in a significant way?
I believe they did change, in a very major way. The problem lies with the interpretation of the "golden rule" - the idea that you should treat others the same way you would want to be treated. This philosophical principle is one of the basic necessities of civilisation. By sharing this key value of reciprocity and fairness, and abiding by it in our interactions with others, we facilitate cooperation for the common good. It transcends religions. You can find it in the concept of karma, for example. But Jews and Christians view it very differently.
If we look at the common basis for the two religions, in the books of the Torah and old testament, we find the first reference to it in Leviticus 19:18:
You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk. Love your neighbor as yourself
Notice how the principle is qualified with "kinsfolk" and "neighbor", both of which could be taken to limit the scope of the principle to within the tribe.
In Christianity, this point was clarified in Matthew 7:12 and Luke 6:31:
Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
Notice the statement is completely unqualified. It applies to all other people, regardless of their affiliation.
Further evidence of the universal nature of the golden rule in Christianity can be found in the parable of the good Samaritan. The Samaritan, considered a heretic and enemy to Judaism, is show to behave with kindness to a Jew. In this, you can find the basis of the Christian principle of playing fair and being kind to everyone. This is both one of Christianity's greatest strengths, and it's greatest weakness. The problem is that we expect everyone else to play by the same rules, but they don't.
Now contrast this with Judaism, which as it developed also clarified this point. Unfortunately, it went in the other direction. I'm sure you've all seen the objectionable quotes from the Talmud. The Goyim are regarded like livestock. A Jew may deceive, manipulate, cheat and steal as much as they want from the Goyim, it matters not, for they are not God's chosen people - they are fair game.
And so you see how this small difference in wording becomes a huge, fundamental divide that is behind all the problems we have with Jews today. Religion of Cuck™ makes a similar distinction between the treatment of Muslims and Khuffar, but at least they welcome converts and treat all Muslims the same. Jews combine this insidious concept with the idea of being "Gods chosen people" and not seeking converts at all.
This is at the root of all the troubles we have with Jews today. Some Jews remain decent people, but that's personal conscience, they don't have to be. Their religion teaches them that it's their birthright to exploit the Goyim for their own benefit, and they're free to use any trick in the book to achieve that. Judaism teaches them to be dishonorable.