The Leninist system was one of the greatest blows socialism suffered in the 20th century, second only to perhaps fascism. When Lenin took power one of his first acts, along with Trotsky, was to destroy the socialist institutions that had arisen in the pre-Bolshevik era. He did away with factory councils, the constituent assembly (which was dominated by the left Socialists and SRs), of course went to war with the anarchists (tried to wipe them out).
There was a logic to it, they were orthodox marxists (unlike Marx incidentally) and the subscribed to a version of Marxism that said the revolution can't come in a backward peasant society. So they felt that they had to "drive" this backwards peasant class through industrialisation by force, and then by the iron laws of history socialism will be achieved. It's all nonsense of course, but they believed it.
This was what formed the basis for a totalitarian system with an ideological doctrine behind it. So now, sadly, the term "socialism" has been degraded to mean the kind of totalitarianism instituted by Lenin and carried through by Stalin.
It was entirely natural, of course, that the "Marxists" should be in the lead in destroying the revolution. Bakunin years earlier had predicted all this; he said that in the future there'll be two forms of socialism, and the one form will take over the state and institute a red beuaraucracy that will be the most violent, brutal regime the world has ever seen.
It was a good prediction, probably one of the only predictions of the social sciences that has actually came true.